Disease transmission

Venereal transmission

Trans-ovarial and venereal transmission (infected male ticks transmit the infection during copulation to uninfected female ticks) of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHF) have been demonstrated amongst some vector species, indicating a mechanism which may contribute to maintaining the circulation of the virus in nature. However, the most important source for acquisition of the CCHF virus by ticks is believed to be infected small vertebrates on which immature Hyalomma ticks feed. Venereal transmission of the virus causing African swine fever can also take place between male and female Ornithodoros porcinus.

Venereal transmission occurs during transfer of the spermatophore produced by male ticks and anchored in the genital aperture of the female tick. The neck of the spermatophore is often seen protruding from the genital aperture of engorged female ticks collected from host animals.