Disease transmission

Transmission by coxal fluid

Blood meal concentration in hard ticks is accomplished by salivary glands and excess fluid is reinjected into the host, a process during which transmission of pathogens occurs. In soft ticks however, coxal glands excrete excess fluid during feeding. During this process pathogens can also be excreted with the coxal fluid and infect the host. This is mainly the case in Borrelia duttonni transmitted by Ornithodoros moubata causing tick-borne relapsing fever and African swine fever transmitted by Ornithodoros porcinus porcinus (Kleiboeker et al., 1998).